Friday, October 01, 2004

Essentialist Intuitions

There seems to be a lot of talk about intuitions among analytic philosophers these days, with an entire new area of philosophy, experimental philosophy, devoted to them. The issue is whether the intuitions that drive philosophers' reasoning, be they about reference, intention, free will, or some other philosophically important construct, are universal. Testing whether non-philosophers, and members of disparate cultures, share these intuitions is a good way to find out. I'm not sure whether it's a good or bad thing that some intuitions driving philosophical analyses may not be universal, and there seems to be a lively debate about this going on. Still, I find the research very interesting, and enjoy reading it now and then.

All of the research that I have read so far focuses on intuitions that philosophers make explicit in their analyses. For instance, philosophers who are studying reference spend a lot of time constructing scenarios and consulting their intuitions to test different theories of intuition. However, as Machery et al have shown, the intuitions that western philosophers have about reference may not be shared by members of other cultures (specifically East Asian cultures1). Like I said, this is very interesting, though the implications are still up for debate, but it made me wonder about something that might be even more interesting (at least to me). What about the implicit intuitions that may drive certain philosophical theories?

If the last 30 years of research in cognitive science have taught me anything, it's that many of our basic cognitive intuitions, biases, tendencies, and processes, are unavailable for reflection. This is, in fact, why cognitive psychology is useful. If we could simply discover what our minds are doing through disciplined reflection, we'd have no need for third-person experimental techniques. Fortunately, there's enough about our cognition that is implicit, unconscious, or automatic to keep cognitive psychologists working for centuries to come. My question, then, is how do these implicit aspects of cognition affect philosophical theorizing? It would be beyond the scope of a blog post to look at a bunch of different implicit intuitions or biases, and wonder about their effects on philosophy, so I'll stick to one: psychological essentialism.

While "essentialism" as a metaphysical doctrine has been out of style at various times (and still is today, especially among post-Husserlian continental philosophers), it has been a dominant theme throughout the history of western metaphysics since at least Aristotle. Most recently, and inspired by the work of philosophers like Putnam and Kripke, realists of all sorts, from scientific realists to naturalists in legal philosophy have tended to adopt an essentialist metaphysics, at least about natural kinds. I don't want to address all of the arguments within analytic philosophy for and against essentialism (and to be honest, with the exception of some anti-realist analytic philosophies, I'm simply not qualified to do so), but I do want to wonder about the role of essentialist intuitions in the prominence of essentialism in western thought.

Psychological essentialism is a theory of concepts in cognitive psychology that involves the idea that people are basically essentialists in their reasoning. It doesn't entail metaphysical essentialism, but is instead an epistemological stance toward natural kind concepts, and perhaps other (e.g., functional kind) concepts as well. Psychological essentialism entails that people believe that things "have essences or underlying natures that make them the thing that they are."2. Furthermore, most people are unaware of what those essences are. As Gelman and Diesendruck3 put it:

Essentialism does not entail that people know (consciously or unconsciously) what the essence is. Medin and Ortony (1989)4 referred to this unknown-yet-believed-in entity as an “essence placeholder”. People may implicitly assume, for example, that there is some quality that bears share that confers category identity and causes identifiable surface features, and they may use this belief to guide inductive inferences and explanations without being able to identify any feature or trait as the bear essence. This belief can be considered an unarticulated heuristic rather than a detailed theory.

Under this view, when people encounter an instance of a kind, they use its perceptual features to categorize it, but the category itself is defined by its internal, unperceived essence. This is possible because people, as essentialists, believe that certain diagnostic perceptual properties (e.g., a giraffe's long neck) are causally related to certain underlying properties (genetics, transmission from parents, etc.).

There is a wide variety of evidence for essentialist intuitions, both in adults and in young children. For instance, people tend to classify things based on internal properties, rather than perceptual ones, even after they have undergone radical perceptual transformations (e.g., a skunk given the body of a squirrel)5. Also, at a young age, people tend to make inferences about the future states of natural kinds based on internal properties, rather than facts about the environment (for instance, children infer that apple seeds will become apple trees, regardless of the environmental conditions)6. Furthermore, when people believe that unseen essential properties determine category membership, they are more likely to defer to the opinion of experts7. While psychological essentialism theories of concepts do not capture all instance of categorization8, they do provide insight into many classification phenomena.

Psychological essentialism doesn't entail metaphysical essentialism, necessarily. Medin put it this way9:

If psychological essentialism is bad metaphysics, why should people act as if things had essences? The reason is that it may prove to be good epistemology. One could say that people adopt an essentialist heuristic, namely, the hypothesis that things that look alike tend to share deeper properties (similarities). Our perceptual and conceptual systems appear to have evolved such that the essentialist heuristic is very often correct ....

Still, in light of the recent discussions of intuitions among experimental philosophers, I can't help but wonder about the role of psychological essentialism in the formulation of essentialist metaphysics. If people have implicit essentialist intuitions which mirror the types of essentialist theories proposed by philosophers (notice how the description of psychological essentialism above resembles Kripke's essentialism and causal theories of reference), might the essentialist theories be driven by those intuitions? What would the implications of this be, if true? Might it mean that philosophers, or at least western philosophers, are biased toward essentialist metaphysical theories? Would these biases then need careful scrutiny? Or has the history of to-and-fro debate between essentialists and non-essentialists amounted to a scrutiny of these intuitions, even if they didn't address the intuitions themselves? I'm inclined to think that if the reliance on explicit intuitions calls into question the theories of analytic philosophy, then so too might the unconscious reliance on implicit intuitions, such as psychological essentialism. At least, I think it's an interesting issue to think about.

1 The work of Machery et al was inspired, in part, by the research presented in this book, which is very interesting, but still needs a strong experimental basis for most researchers to begin to take it seriously. It's interesting that some of that basis is coming from philosophers!
2From Medin D. L. (1989) Concepts and conceptual structure. American Psychologist 44: 1469-1481.
3 From Diesendruck G. & Gelman S. A.(1999). Domain differences in absolute judgments of category membership: Evidence for an essentialist account of categorization. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 6(2), 338-346.
4 From Medin, D. L. & Ortony, A. (1989). Psychological essentialism. In S. Vosniadou and A. Ortony (Eds.), Similarity and analogical reasoning. New York: Cambridge University Press.
5 See e.g., Conceptual Change in Childhood by Susan Carey; Keil, F. (1986). Conceptual development and category structure. In U. Neisser (Ed.), Concepts and Conceptual Development. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Concepts, Kinds, and Cognitive Development by Frank Keil; and Rips, L. J. (1989). Similarity, typicality, and categorization. In S. Vosniadou & A. Ortony (Eds.), Similarity and Analogical Reasoning. New York: Cambridge University Press.
6 Gelman, S. A., & Wellman, H. M. (1991). Insides and essences: Early understandings of the nonobvious. Cognition, 38, 213-244.
7 Deference in Categorisation: Evidence for Essentialism? by Nick Braisby.
8 See Barbara Malt (1994) Water is not H2O. Cognitive Psychology, 27, 41-70, as well as the Braisby paper, for some interesting examples.
9 From Medin D. L. (1989).


37 comments:

Clark Goble said...

Chris, you say that essentialism is out of fashion among Continental philosophers. In what sense do you mean that? After all it seems that Heidegger is very much an essentialist. Indeed up until his latter period he spends considerable time discussing the essence of this or that.

It is true that Heidegger (and latter figures) deny a pre-given complete essence that determines us. However I'm not sure that should be taken to imply that we have no essence nor that we avoid realism. I tend to take, for instance, Derrida, as rather close to the old medieval realists myself.

I'm sure that's not what you meant by essentialism, of course. However I wonder if we ought to see in Putnam a traditional essentialism either. Perhaps I'm merely misreading him. Is he a realist or an anti-realist? I tend to buy him as a realist, although I recognize I'm probably in the minority in that regard. Must be my Peircean bias.

Chris said...

Clark, I'm going to go sort of in reverse. First off, I think Putnam is widely recognized as a realist. In his latest work (The Threefold Cord), he describes his position as natural realism, and compares it to James, Dewey, and Wittgenstein. I'm not going to get into what natural realism is here (maybe in another post), but you're right, it's different from classical realism. Putnam's essentialism, though, comes from an earlier stage when his realism was a bit more like classical realism, and in the form of scientific realism, looks a lot like classical realism, though the essences themselves (scientifically discoverable causal properties) are different.

I also think that you're right about Heidegger. I know Dreyfus presents him as a realist, and Heidegger himself seems to want an almost common-sense metaphysics (though "metaphysics" is a bad word for it), at least in the earlier works. This is also true of my personal favorites, Bergson (not really post-Husserl, but close enough) and Merleau-Ponty. Still, even the early Heidegger, and especially the later Heidegger, strike me as directly opposed to classical essentialism, in which there is a language of reality, which may not be directly perceivable (essences are hidden), but which is somehow discoverable (discursively, dialectically, or however), and which determines the nature of things once and for all. An apple is an apple because it has apple essence (or in the scientific realism, because it has a certain casual relationship to its parent plant, a certain molecular structure, or whatever). I may be wrong about Heidegger's earlier works, because I haven't read Being in Time or the lectures from the 30s in a few years, but I don't remember anything that would imply he held a view that's similar to the essentialism that people seem to have as their basic default cognitive standpoint about natural kinds.

That's also how I see Derrida. I don't know enough about the midieval realists to really compare him to them, but I think I understand your point. Still, Derrida's entire project, as I interpret it, is to do away with the baggage that comes with reifying words like "essence," because they fails to highlight the constructed aspects of concepts, and experience. That's why he's so careful not to make his own concepts, like "differance," into methodological or theoretical constructs that carry such baggage. He may very well be a realist (probably more like James or the Putnam of The Threefold Cord than Kripke or Aristotelian essentialists), but I think he's an anti-essentialist in the sense that I think of "essentialism."

By the way, as a Piercian, do you think you could recommend a good secondary source on Pierce's logic?

Clark Goble said...

I didn't realize most took Putnam at his word as a realist. I guess I just have been talking to the wrong people. And here I thought I was in the minority...

I like the way you put it in terms of reification though. I think that what Continental thought does is try to avoid the reification of such matters. (Although I know Rorty oddly argues that the latter Heidegger starts to reify language ala the early Wittgenstein. But I tend to have lost most respect for Rorty's readings, to be honest.)

Clark Goble said...

Oh, regarding Peirce, if there is one must have book on Peirce it is Kelly Parker's The Continuity of Peirce's Thought. He ties together not only the logic but also the important place continuity has in his philosophy. Something all too often overlooked, but important - especially with regards to medieval realism and neoPlatonism parallels. The second great book doesn't really address Peirce's logic, but is a fantastic book. It is Reading Peirce Reading. Beyond that he is such a clear writer than the Essential Peirce probably is as good a text as any.

Chris said...

Clark, I have refused to read anything Rorty wrote after The Consequences of Pragmatism, other than his philosophy of mind, which I find downright peculiar.

Thank you very much for the Pierce suggestions. I read Essentials and another collection (Pierce on Signs, I think it's called) this summer, and want to delve deper into Pierce.

Chris said...

Oh, and I may be unusual when it comes to viewing Putnam as a realist, too, but given the influence of his "The Meaning of 'Meaning'" paper, and similar works, on realists, I've just assumed that people saw at least that period of his work as being genuinely realist. I could be wrong, though.

I actually like his new realism, though. It's much more compatible with my ecological realism (ala Gibson or Merleau-Ponty).

Clark Goble said...

I have to confess the embarrassing secret that I really liked Rorty initially in college. I found that Philosophy and Mirror of Nature was very impressive to me as a sophomore. Of course I was a sophomore, so it didn't mean much. I also have to confess that it was largely a few professors who found me reading it in the library for a paper who led me down that path. They did it mainly to irritate my professor who apparently didn't like Rorty much.

I still kind of like the skepticism Rorty brings forth. My understanding is that he basically inverts the criticisms of folk meanings and folk traditions by philosophers. In a sense this is in keeping with the pragmatic tradition which sees all knowledge more or less grounded upon common sense. Where he goes wrong, is in missing the vagueness inherent in common sense as well as the limits of common sense in terms of experience. In effect he just becomes a more sophisticated version of how a non-philosopher sees philosophical writing.

Chris said...

I'm a closet semi-fan of Rorty's earlier works as well. Even though his descriptions of the ideas of Derrida and other continental thinkers are a bit... off, I still like that he's able to express similar ideas in such straightforward language. I also like the basics of his pragmatism.

My impression is that the main reason analytic philosophers don't like him is that he doesn't play well with others. Apparently he has trouble responding to challenges to his ideas.

Clark Goble said...

Just rereading your post again. I wonder if the difference between psychological essentialism and metaphysical essentialism can be found in Heidegger in a way. Or rather that psychological essentialism is an emergent example of a more primordial kind of essentialism that Heidegger called for-the-sake-of. Metaphysical essentialism (metaphysics in the Heidegger sense) is the thinking that we can and do have definite descriptions of these psychological essenses.

The example that Dreyfus likes to use is for-the-sake-of being a teacher. There is no way to definitely describe what a teacher is. No criteria will ever make you a teacher. Rather it is an essence always "beyond" in a way. This then ends up being more or less the same idea as Derrida's discussion of a certain apocalypse endlessly deferred.

In a way all these essences are simply universals, after the all scholastic realist mold, albeit extricated from a metaphysical foundation. This then gets us to the kind of common-sense-realism of say Putnam, in that the real entities never are "present." (At best they are, to use the Peircean scheme, an endlessly deferred "in-the-long-run" arrangement.)

Chris said...

I hadn't thought of it that way, but I like the direction it takes the idea of intuitive essentialism. One of the interesting thing about the folk belief in essences is that, while most people will tell you that a kind has an essence, if asked, they will be unable to tell you what that essence is. I like to think of this phenomenon, and psychological essentialism in general, as a byproduct of language, which I think fits nicely with Heidegger and Derrida, though I'm not sure about Pierce. I think that the labels for things imply an essence, but the ever-changing context (Heidegger would probably call it becoming) makes it impossible to articulate that essence at any given moment. The essence is moving away from us anytime we utter the label for a thing. In that sense, it is endlessly deferred, but our uttering of the label, and our attitude toward the object, is always directed. It's this directionality, or investment in the object, and in the label (sort of like Quine's ontological commitment), that implies an essence.

I like interpreting this form the perspective of the realism of Putnam or the later Wittgenstein (especially his writings on mathematics). It implies that there may be a way that the world is, but that there is an endless number of ways in which we can approach the world, or be invested in it, and thus the way that the world is constantly moving away from us. I've always interpreted Pierce as believing that logically arrived-at conclusions will continually converge until they get to the point (off in infinity) at which they are final. I may be wrong to read him that way, but if not, that also fits nicely with the way I think this sort of realism works.

Chris said...

I just stumbled across this little quote, which seems appropriate, from the anti-James, FH Bradley (whom James saw as the anti-Bergson):

"Metaphysics is the finding of bad reasons for what we believe upon instinct; but to find these reasons is no less an instinct."

Anonymous said...

How to get more Anarchy credits. He gave me some Anarchy Online credits, he said that I could buy AO credits, but I did not have money, then I played it all my spare time. From then on, I got some Anarchy gold, if I did not continue to play it, I can sell Anarchy online gold to anyone who want.

To every game player angels gold is very import. My friend gave me some angels online gold, he said that I could buy angels gold, but I did not have money, then I played it all my spare time. From then on, I got some cheap angels online gold.

Anonymous said...

I like play online game, I also buy FFXI Gil and FFXI Gil, the FFXI gold is very cheap, and use the Final Fantasy XI gold can buy many things, I like cheap Final Fantasy XI Gold, thanks, it is very good.

I like play online game, I also buy flyff penya and flyff penya, the flyff money is very cheap, and use the flyff gold can buy many things, I like cheap penya, thanks, it is very good.

kiloi said...

nike tnEnter the necessary language
translation, up to 200 bytes winter, moves frequently in Chinanike chaussures showing that the deep strategy of the Chinese market. Harvard Business School, tn chaussures according to the relevant survey data show that in recent years the Chinese market three brands, Adidas, mens clothingpolo shirts Li Ning market share at 21 percent, respectively, 20%, 17%. The brand is first-line to three lines of urban competition for mutual penetration. Side of theworld,announced layoffs, while China's large-scale facilities fists. The sporting goods giant Nike's every move in the winter will be fully s strategy. Years later, the Nike, Inc. announced the world's Fan

kiloi said...

cheap polos
polo shirts
ralph lauren polo shirtssport shoes
ugg boots
puma shoes
chaussures pumamp4
trade chinalacoste polo shirts
chaussure puma femmewedding dressestennis racket
cheap handbags

kiloi said...

HAIR STRAIGHTENERS
ED HARDY SHIRTS
HAIR STRAIGHTENERS
MENSCLOTHING mans clothing
cheap ugg boots
converse shoes
wedding dresses
wholesale polo shirts
brand clothingcheap clothing
clothes sportspolos shirtair shoesair shoesed hardy clothinged hardy clothing
英文推广

wow power leveling said...

cheap wow power leveling buy wow gold cheapest wow power leveling CHEAP wow gold BUY power leveling CHEAPEST wow powerleveling
wow goldwow goldwow goldwow goldweiwei

wholesale jewelry said...

wholesale jewelryhandmade jewelryjewelry wholesalediscount jewelryhandcrafted jewelrywholesale beadscheap jewelry

haitao said...

cheap hair straighteners

new polo shirts
cheap Lacoste polo shirts
cheap Lacoste polo shirts

cheap handbags
cheap bags
puma chaussures
chaussures puma
chaussure puma

Men's North Face
Women's North Face


hair straighteners
sexy lingerie store
cheap ugg boots
tattoo wholesale
men's clothing
women's clothing


2009 nike shoes
new nike shoes
Women's max
Men's max 93
nike shox
Nike air force
Nike air max 2003
nike air max ltd
nike air max tn
Nike air rift
Nike air Yeezy
nike airmax
Nike air max 90
Nike air max 97
nike birds nest shoes
nike dunk
nike RT1 shoes
nike SB
nike shox shoes
Nike shox OZ shoes
Nike shox R2 shoes
Nike shox R3 shoes
Nike shox R4 shoes
Nike shox R5 shoes
Nike shox TL3
nike trainers lovers

tennis rackets
Wilson tennis rackets
HEAD tennis rackets
Babolat tennis rackets

Anonymous said...

Online poker texas holdem free bonus. No veryfication no id needed no risk at all.
Play with other players free bankrolls no id required all possible $50 bankrolls.
starting bankrolls and capital $50 bonus poker. Stay away, get more cheap poker promotion.
once you have free starting poker capital from bankrollmob.
Over fifty sponsors dollars poker bonus darmowe pieniądze bez depozytu tylko czyszczenia za darmo.
Ale także bez wpłaty no i mansion bet most,poker darmowe free czyszczenia no risk, no deposit.
on line promo wow bonus sign up poker account for free huge and gift promotion.
free no deposit need id sign tapicerki. Dlatego zarabiaj online karcher no deposit information for poker,
more and free no deposit sponsorship no id verify from bet poker blog.
money czyszczenie poker sławków dąbrowa katowice chorzów. wyrzynarke meblową z karcher odkurzaczem, tanio i śmiesznie cheap. poker capital no id katowice ślask ale także online odbywa się szybko i dokładnie wow.
Promocje związane z czyszczenie wykładzin tapicerek jest na prawdę tanie online free.
Czyszczenie odbywa się u klienta.

pedro velasquez said...

In his comment to my post on conceptual metaphor theory (CMT), reposted here,sportsbook Dr. Gibbs writes: The topic of why conceptual metaphor theory arouses such vehemence is one that greatly interests me and is again the subject of my in.In the previous entry, I made some disparaging remarks about conceptual metaphor theory (CMT),bet nfl and George Lakoff specifically. I also noted that, in my experience,, the psycholinguist Raymond Gibbs, Jr. is the only one in thehttp://www.enterbet.com cognitive linguistics who seriously

Anonymous said...

蘭花 台北旅遊 台北旅遊景點 台北民宿 坪林 坪林茶葉博物館 宜蘭民宿 木柵動物園 深坑老街 真情民宿 貓空 台北旅遊 台北民宿 坪林 坪林茶葉博物館 宜蘭民宿 木柵動物園 化糞池 抽化糞池 抽水肥 水管不通 洗水塔 消毒 通水管 通馬桶 馬桶 馬桶不通 上順旅行社 五福旅行社 大興旅行社 天喜旅行社 天福旅行社 日本旅行社 日本旅遊 日本機票 日本自由行 日本訂房 包通 抽化糞池 抽水肥 水管不通 洗水塔 清水溝 通水管 通馬桶 馬桶 馬桶不通 便宜機票 國內旅遊 國外旅遊 國外機票 團體旅遊 直航機票 簽證 自由行 訂房 雄獅旅遊 汽車美容 汽車美容 三久太陽能 太陽能 太陽能熱水器 三久 櫻花牌熱水器 熱水器 省電熱水器 衛浴設備 節能減碳 電熱水器

Anonymous said...

中古車 二手車 環保袋 環保袋 環保袋 十分瀑布 台北旅遊網 台北民宿 平溪 景觀餐廳 薰衣草花園 花園餐廳 螢火蟲 渡假村 鐵道之旅 團體服 滷味 滷味加盟 滷味批發 滷味食材 滷味宅配 滷雞翅 滷雞腳 健康滷味 魯味 加盟創業 慈善 義賣 義賣活動 慈善機構 公益彩券 健康食品 慈善基金會 公益團體 愛心捐款 捐款 美白 皺紋 減肥 禿 頭 醫學美容 電波拉皮 雷射溶脂 肉毒桿菌 玻尿酸 痘疤

Anonymous said...

租辦公室租店面買辦公室店面租賃店面出租店面出售花茶花草茶養生茶招牌led招牌招牌製作美國月子中心保養美國月子中心OBU投審會會計師事務所會計師工商登記公司登記包子肉粽宅配美食四神湯搬家公司訂房訂房網花東旅遊桃園土地桃園房屋仲介桃園房屋桃園房屋網桃園房屋買賣漆彈搬家公司會場設計展場設計會場設計展場設計展覽設計消防設備消防設備機電崴立機電消防公司地板施工超耐磨地板店面出租乳癌全身健康檢查肝癌健康檢查身體檢查飛梭雷射雷射溶脂直航機票自由行三久太陽能三久太陽能太陽能熱水器別墅外觀設計環保袋別墅外觀設計室內裝修電波拉皮hand dryer電波拉皮雷射溶脂肉毒桿菌系統家具台中漆彈場漆彈團體服美國月子中心團體服

season said...

Your article is very good.I like it very much.
Once upon a time, there was a mouse father.He wanted to marry his daughter to the greatest person in the world.But, who was the greatest person in the world?Oh!
puma ferrari shoes
cheap nike shoesThe sun! He must be the greatest person in the world.The mouse father went to talk to the sun."Hello! Mr. Sun.
puma shoes
ferrari shoes
I know you are the greatest person in the world.Would you marry my daughter?""What? I'm not the greatest person in the world. The greatest person is the cloud.If he comes out, I’ll be covered."
nike shox nz
Ugg Boots
The mouse father went to talk to the cloud. “Hello! Mr. Cloud. I know you are the greatest person in the world. Would you marry my daughter?”
nike 360 air max
nike shox shoes
“What? I’m not the greatest person in the world. The greatest person is the wind.If he comes out, I’ll be blown away.”
cheap puma shoes
puma drift cat
The mouse father went to talk to the wind. “Hello! Mr. Wind. I know you are the greatest person in the world.Would you marry my daughter?” “What? I’m not the greatest person in the world. The greatest person is the wall. If he comes out, I’ll be stopped.”
cheap nike shox
nike air max 360
The mouse father went to talk to the wall. “Hello! Mr. Wall. I know you are the greatest person in the world. Would you marry my daughter?” “What? I’m not the greatest person in the world. The greatest person is YOU, the mouse.” “The greatest person in the world is … mouse?” “Yes, the greatest person in the world is mouse. See? If mouse comes out, I’ll be bit!”
nike air max
pumas shoes
The mouse father was very happy. He finally knew mouse was the greatest person in the world. He would marry his daughter to the handsome mouse next door.
cheap jeans
cheap levis jeans
ed hardy jeans

Adi said...

Get the lates information of Electronics Gadgets Tech gadgets Cool Gadgets New Gadgets Best Gadgets Latest Gadgets Cool New Gadgets

share it said...

整形外科|童裝批發|春藥|徵信|清境民宿|機票|隔熱紙|玻尿酸|電波拉皮|美白針|脈衝光|花蓮民宿|徵信社|壯陽藥品|室內裝潢|指甲彩繪

Adi said...

Oes Tsetnoc one of the ways in which we can learn seo besides Mengembalikan Jati Diri Bangsa. By participating in the Oes Tsetnoc or Mengembalikan Jati Diri Bangsa we can improve our seo skills. To find more information about Oest Tsetnoc please visit my Oes Tsetnoc pages. And to find more information about Mengembalikan Jati Diri Bangsa please visit my Mengembalikan Jati Diri Bangsa pages. Thank you So much.
Oes Tsetnoc | Semangat Mengembalikan Jati Diri Bangsa

VUONG said...

恋愛 相談
ウェディングドレス
募金
インプラント
カラコン
ボイストレーニング
債務整理
民事再生
自己破産
過払い金
任意整理
リサイクルショップ
オフィス家具
店舗デザイン
債務整理
過払い
新宿 マッサージ
タイ古式マッサージ
広島 不動産
婚活
お見合いパーティー
マカ
格安航空券 国内
バイク便
税理士 東京
青梅市 不動産
配線工事
高級賃貸
メンズ バッグ
新築 敷金0 礼金0
リコメンド
六本木 バー
幼稚園先生
伊丹市賃貸

VUONG said...

伊丹市賃貸
折込広告
カップリングパーティー
新規事業
エステ 名古屋
防水工事
ゴルフ 合コン
バーチャルオフィスを広める社長のブログ
結婚相談所 東京
mobile phone rental
厨房機器 買取
社会人入試
ビーズ ネックレス
アトピー 温泉
COMTY株式会社
犬 サプリメント
マルチビタミンミネラル
整体 開業
整体 所沢
霊園 春日部
霊園 所沢
グルコサミン
プラセンタ サプリメント
美容ドリンク
ED治療薬
スピード矯正
酵母 効果
糖尿病 改善
ucla
お好み焼
卵管閉塞 漢方
東横線 不動産
港区 賃貸
チョコレートのう胞 漢方
三軒茶屋 賃貸
都筑区 不動産
武蔵小山 賃貸
経営相談

yiran said...

Your blog is wonderful, I like it very much, thank you!
By the way, do you like polo shirts, which are very chic, especially the polo t shirts, I love them very much. I also like playing tennis rackets, it can keep healthy, what do you like to do?
We are the outlet of polo t shirts women, polo t shirts on sale, polo t shirts for women, polo shirts on sale, these products are best-seller in our store online.besides we also sell polo shirts men, men's polo shirt, men polo shirt, mens polo shirts, mens polo shirt and cheap polo shirts, discount polo shirts, men's polo shirts, women's polo shirts We are also the outlet of cheap tennis racket, discount tennis racket and the main product is prince tennis racquet, head tennis rackets, wilson tennis racket, babolat tennis racquet. So if you love sports, you should not miss our store, we can meet what you want, and you can find many surprise in our store

Anonymous said...

Gucci
Gucci shop
Gucci bags
Gucci shoes
Replica GUCCI SHOES
wholesale gucci shoes
cheap Gucci handbags
Gucci ON sale
Gucci Belts
Gucci small accessories
Gucci hats & scarves
Gucci wallets
Gucci Handbags
Women Gucci shoes
Men Gucci shoes
discount gucci shoes
cheap Gucci shoes

太陽˙眼鏡 said...

牙醫,植牙,矯正,矯正牙齒,皮膚科,痘痘,中醫,飛梭雷射,毛孔粗大,醫學美容,痘痘,seo,關鍵字行銷,自然排序,網路行銷,自然排序,關鍵字行銷seo,部落格行銷,網路行銷,seo,關鍵字行銷,自然排序,部落格行銷,網路行銷,牛舌餅婚紗台中婚紗,腳臭,腳臭,腳臭,腳臭,腳臭,腳臭

太陽˙眼鏡 said...

牙醫,植牙,矯正,矯正牙齒,皮膚科,痘痘,中醫,飛梭雷射,毛孔粗大,醫學美容,痘痘,seo,關鍵字行銷,自然排序,網路行銷,自然排序,關鍵字行銷seo,部落格行銷,網路行銷,seo,關鍵字行銷,自然排序,部落格行銷,網路行銷,牛舌餅婚紗台中婚紗,腳臭,腳臭,腳臭,腳臭,腳臭,腳臭

pedro velasquez said...

In a fit of nostalgia, after thirteen years living as a “free man,” Sportsbook Enrique Martin abandons common sense, his third wife and his life in Spain to return to Cuba. Once on the island, he tries to get closer to his son, David, who is struggling to make do on his teacher’s salary and is harassed by policemen who brand him a “citizen with characteristics.” Amidst televised speeches, online betting ration cards, buildings on the verge of collapse, sun, sand, sea foam, censorship, intolerance and other tropical substances, a good cop, a bad cop, several Marias, a Jazz quartet, an idealistic teacher, child molesters, march madness an alleged Dominican, an Australian with strong thighs, drug lords, suicides, pornographers, revolutionaries and a varied list of criminals gather in these pages. All they have in common is one question: where are the emergency exits in Havana?
http://www.canadacasino.com

Anonymous said...

this blog is kawaii XD
チラシ 印刷
I am sorry for doing this lol
I like to drinkコーヒー these days.
you know?
its food for sake.

Anonymous said...

you know評判管理?