Saturday, July 30, 2005

Fear, Race, and the Unconscious

The amygdala is an often misunderstood brain region. It's closely associated with emotion in general, as well as many emotionally-mediated cognitive and perceptual processes, including face recognition and even affect-mediated memory recall. Despite its many functions, it's often treated in casual discussions and the popular press as the source of one particular emotion: fear. For example, in the recent discussion of the neuroimagining studies of males and females during orgasm, the fact that deactivation was observed in the amygdala was discussed almost exclusively as a decreased fear response, even though there's no other evidence (e.g., in the form of skin conductance responses) that fear responses were decreased. It's dangerous, then, to talk about fear and the amygdala in relation to certain controversial topics. But dangerous is my middle name (seriously, it's on my birth certificate), so I'm going to chance it anyway. Readers should keep in mind the difficulty in interpreting results associated with neuroimagining data indicating increased (or decreased) activation in areas with multiple functions.

While the amygdala is associated with many emotions, there is growing evidence that it is closely associated with fear and fear-related conditioning in nonhuman animals and humans. First, while bilateral damage to the amygdala produce general emotional deficits in humans1, bilateral amygdala lesions are specifically associated with deficits in fear conditioning and produce severe deficits in the recognition of fearful faces2 and vocal intonation3 associated with fear relative to deficits in recognizing those displaying or expressing other emotions (e.g., happiness). Several imaging studies have also observed increased amygdala activation during fear conditioning4, as well as the recognition of fearful faces5, and the visual or cognitive6 representation of fearful stimuli. It's pretty clear, then, that the amygdala is a central part of the system that produces fear recognition and conditioning in humans.

Another line of research, born of the controversy surrounding the claim that the Implicit Association Test (IAT) may reveal implicit racial attitudes, has investigated the neural activity underlying such attitudes. In one study7, researchers presented participants with photos of unfamiliar white and black faces while they were in an fMRI machine. They also gave the participants the IAT, as well as another implicit measure (startle eyeblink), and asked them to describe their attitudes toward African Americans. They found that activation in the amygdala increased for black faces, and was correlated with implicit attitudes (more activation in the amygdala corresponded to more negative associations with African Americans), but not with explicitly expressed attitudes8.

A second study presented white and black participants with photos of white and black faces while they were in an fMRI, and measured amygdalar activation over time9. For ingroup faces (white faces for white participants, black faces for black participants), amygdala activation decreased over time as several ingroup faces were viewed. For outgroup faces, no such decrease in activation was observed. Thus, after the presentation of several ingroup and outgroup faces, amygdala activation was low for ingroup faces but high for outgroup faces.

In a third imaging study, participants were again presented with white and black faces, this time for two different durations, short (30ms) and long (525 ms)10. This study also showed higher amygdala activation for black faces than white faces for white participants, but only for the short durations. At longer durations, there was no difference in amygdala activation between white and black faces, while there was increased activation for black faces in cortical areas associated with conscious control. The researchers argue that this explains the findings from the first study, claiming that initially, implicit attitudes are activated, but longer exposure allows conscious, or explicit attitudes to be activated and to inhibit the implicit associations.

OK, so I told you all of that to tell you about this. These three studies indicate that the processing of faces from members of racial outgroups results in activation in the amygdala. This may indicate that fear responses and racial attitudes share neural systems. There is in fact some behavioral evidence for this. According to terror management theory, which has produced a ton of supporting data over the last decade or so, fear (especially fear of death), produces exaggerated ingroup-outgroup responses11. In particular, negative evaluations of outgroup members are heightened, as are positive evaluations of ingroup members. These findings motivated a just-published study on the relationship between fear conditioning and racial attitudes12. The researchers presented white and black participants with white and black faces, as in the imaging studies, but added a twist. During the presentation of either the black or white faces (varying which face across participants), the participants also received a mild electric shock. After a few trials, they exhibited a conditioned response (measured by skin conductance) to the faces associated with the shock, but not to the faces that were not associated with a shock. After the conditioning phase, the participants were again presented with the faces, but without any shock. The result of interest was the extinction rates for ingroup vs outgroup faces. For some stimuli (the researchers mention snakes and spiders), fear responses seem to elicit prepared conditioning responses, so that when those stimuli are paired with an aversive experience (like electric shocks), extinction takes longer than it does for stimuli that aren't preconditioned to be associated with fear (they use butterflies and birds). If the extinction of conditioned fear responses take longer for racial outgroup faces than for ingroup faces, it would indicate that there is a preconditioned association with fear for those faces. This is in fact what they found: for white participants, the fear responses took significantly longer to extinguish for black faces than white faces, and the opposite was observed for black participants. The only participants who didn't, on average, show this effect were those who had a lot of interracial dating experience (i.e., positive experience with racial outgroup members).

All of this information taken together presents a fairly clear picture: fear and negative racial attitudes are closely associated. However, the authors of the last study make it clear that they don't believe their data implies an innate fear of racial outgroup members, as some have argued such prepared responses to snakes, spiders, and other fear-related stimuli indicate. Here is how they put it:
In other words, because of its relatively recent emergence as an important dimension in human social interaction, race inherently cannot be the basis of the outgroup preparedness result. Instead, it is likely that sociocultural learning about the identity and qualities of outgroups is what provides the basis for the greater persistence of fear conditioning involving members of another group. Most notably, individuals acquire negative beliefs about outgroups according to
their local cultures, and few reach adulthood without considerable knowledge of these prejudices and stereotypes. It is plausible that repeated exposure to information about outgroups might prepare individuals to fear newly encountered outgroup members.
Studies like these will can help people in combating negative racial attitudes. The empirical evidence I've discussed here shows that conscious attitudes can inhibit implicit (likely unconscious) negative racial attitudes, and that positive exposure to members of racial outgroups (as in those participants who had interracial dating experience in the last study) can create positive implicit attitudes towards the members of other races. This means that people are less likely to act on implicit negative attitudes towards members of other races when they have the time and cognitive resources to allow their explicit attitudes to take control. It also means that negative associations can be combated through positive exposure to members of other races. In other words, diversity is important, because it allows for positive exposure to the members of other races. Hopefully future research will find other ways to diminish the fear-related emotional responses to other races as well.


1 Aggleton, J.P. (1992). The functional effects of amygdala lesions in humans: A comparison with findings from monkeys. In J.P. Aggleton (ed.), The Amygdala: Neurobiological Aspects of Emotion, Memory, and Mental Dysfunction. New York: Wilely-Liss, 485-503.
2 Calder, A.J., Young, A.W., Rowland, D., Perrett, D.I., Hodges, J.R., Etcoff, N.L. (1996). Facial emotion recognition after bilateral amygdala damage: differentially severe impairment of fear. Cognitive Neuropsychology, 13, 699-745.
3 Scott, S.K., Young, A.W., Calder, A.J., Hellawell, D.J., Aggleton, J.P., Johnson, M. (1997). Impaired auditory recognition of fear and anger following bilateral amygdala lesions. Nature, 385(6613), 254-257.
4 Quirk G.J., Armony, J.L. & LeDoux, J.E. (1997). Fear conditioning enhances different temporal components of tone-evoked spike trains in auditory cortex and lateral amygdala. Neuron, 19, 613-624; LaBar, K.S. Gatenby, J.C., Gore, J.C., LeDoux, J.E., & Phelps, E.A. (1998). Human amygdala activation during conditioned fear acquisition and extinction: a mixed trial fMRI study. Neuron 20, 937-945.
5 Morris, J.S., Frith, C.D., Perrett, D.I., Rowland, D., Young, A.W., Calder, A.J., Dolan, R.J. (1996). A differential neural response in the human amygdala to fearful and happy facial expressions.
6 Phelps, E.A., O'Connor, K.J., Gatenby, C., Gore, J.C., Grillon, C., & Davis, M. (2001). Activation of the left amygdala to a cognitive representation of fear. Nature Neuroscience, 4, 437-441.
7 Phelps, E.A., O'Connor, K.J., Cunningham, W.A., & Funayama, E.S. (2000). Performance on indirect measures of race evaluation predicts amygdala activation. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 12(5), 729-738.
8 Interestingly, in their second experiment, they used familiar (famous) and positively regarded black faces. In this case, they didn't observe increased amygdalar activation to black faces. This confirms the "safe black person" phenomenon that is so common these days.
9 Hart, A.J., Whalen, P.J., Shin, L.M., McInerney, S.C., Fischer, H., & Rauch, S.L. (2000). Differential response in the human amygdala to racial outgroup vs ingroup face stimuli. NeuroReport, 11(11).
10 Cunningham, W.A., Johnson, M.K., Raye, C.L., Gatenby, J.C., Gore, J.C., & Banaji, M.R. (2004). Separable neural components in the processing of black and white faces. Psychological Science, 15(12), 806-813.
11 Solomon, S., Greenberg, J., Schimel, J., Arndt, J., & Pyszczynski, T. (in press). Human awareness of death and the evolution of culture. In M. Schaller and C. Crandal (eds.), The psychological foundations of culture. Erlbaum.
12 Olsson, A., Ebert, J.P., Banaji, M.R., & Phelps, E.A. (2005). The role of social groups in the persistence of learned fear. Science, 309, 785-787.

48 comments:

Brandon said...

Yet another reason for something like Bullworth's "open-ended program of procreative racial deconstruction"!

Blar said...

Is it possible that the extinction results are due to familiarity? I'm thinking of an explanation like this: People who have a lot of prior experience with some type of stimulus with which they have a few aversive experiences do not develop as strong of a conditioned response as people with less prior experience. Since people have more prior experience with same-race people (with a few exceptions, like those who have dated interracially), a negative conditioned response to same-race people is less persistent. Is there something about the process of fear conditioning or the results of the Olsson et al. study that rules out this alternative account?

Chris said...

Blar, there is some evidence that simple familiarity can't explain it. I didn't describe all of the correlations that they looked at, and only mentioned the interracial dating factor because it was the only one with a strong negative correlation with the time to extinction. They also included friendship, acquaintances, and a implicit and explicit measures of racial attitudes. The number of interracial friends and acquaintances that a person had didn't correlate with conditioning at all, indicating that simple exposure or familiarity wasn't sufficient to explain the data.

Of course, that doesn't completely rule out familiarity. It will take future research to fully explain the data, though all of the experiments placing reactions to racial outgroup members and fear conditioning in the same brain area are pretty suggestive. Of course, that's why I included the warning at the beginning: they're suggestive, but not conclusive.

Anonymous said...

You said:
"positive exposure to members of racial outgroups (as in those participants who had interracial dating experience in the last study) can create positive implicit attitudes towards the members of other races."

However, correlation does not indicate causation. Not that I necessarily believe this, but perhaps those who choose to date other-race partners may do so because of positive attitudes (and less "fearful" responses) to people of other races.

Chris said...

anon, of course. i didn't mean to imply that the research proved anything, but it certainly suggests something.

muhead said...

I'm quite a neophyte in these matters, but it is a topic which facinates me quite a bit. Based on what I've read, and particulary influenced by my reading of Jeff Hawkins' "On Intelligence" I'm beginning to think:

- Pattern recognition and prediction is a foundational principal on which most (upper level, at least) brain activity is built.

- Most interesting aspects of human behavior are triggered by matches or disparities between our current experience (pattern matching) and experience past behavior or innate prejudices (prediction). For example, humor or startled fear when the unexpected happens.

- Face recognition, from what I've read, appears to be a very innate (vs. learned) capability in humans. Just-born babies look deep into the faces of mothers, fathers, and others present and seem to recognize to some extent what they are looking at. Yet they show no fear. It would be interesting to see if there is any different reaction to seeing fair-skinned or dark-skinned faces just after birth and before the constancy of like-skinned familial faces takes effect.

- After repeated experiences of like-skinned faces, a prediction of similar experiences is established. When we see a well-known pattern (such as something resembling a face) that differs remakably from what is expected, it triggers a fear response. For example, a fair-skinned baby born to a fair-skinned family seeing a dark-skinned face would recognize the face, and then recognize that it is different from the faces he knows and expects to see.

- Fear of the differences is built on an animal level response mechanism for survival - those which are different might very well be predators.

- Thus, our prejudices are based on a natural fear of the unknown / different / outsider, but this fear response can be easily overcome with positive and constant experiences. These prejudices are reinforced by society and possible lack of diversity. Prejudices are diminished with repeated positive contra-experiences.

- Other world views, such as the world is a dangerous place or Others can be trusted arise from similar early experiences establishing predictive patterns.


Just some thoughts...

kiloi said...

nike tnEnter the necessary language
translation, up to 200 bytes winter, moves frequently in Chinanike chaussures showing that the deep strategy of the Chinese market. Harvard Business School, tn chaussures according to the relevant survey data show that in recent years the Chinese market three brands, Adidas, mens clothingpolo shirts Li Ning market share at 21 percent, respectively, 20%, 17%. The brand is first-line to three lines of urban competition for mutual penetration. Side of theworld,announced layoffs, while China's large-scale facilities fists. The sporting goods giant Nike's every move in the winter will be fully s strategy. Years later, the Nike, Inc. announced the world's Fan

kiloi said...

cheap polos
polo shirts
ralph lauren polo shirtssport shoes
ugg boots
puma shoes
chaussures pumamp4
trade chinalacoste polo shirts
chaussure puma femmewedding dressestennis racket
cheap handbags

kiloi said...

HAIR STRAIGHTENERS
ED HARDY SHIRTS
HAIR STRAIGHTENERS
MENSCLOTHING mans clothing
cheap ugg boots
converse shoes
wedding dresses
wholesale polo shirts
brand clothingcheap clothing
clothes sportspolos shirtair shoesair shoesed hardy clothinged hardy clothing
英文推广

haitao said...

cheap hair straighteners
chi hair straightener
chi flat iron

new polo shirts
cheap Lacoste polo shirts
cheap Lacoste polo shirts

cheap handbags
cheap bags
puma chaussures
chaussures puma
chaussure puma

Men's North Face
Women's North Face


hair straighteners
sexy lingerie store
cheap ugg boots
tattoo wholesale
men's clothing
women's clothing


2009 nike shoes
new nike shoes
Women's max
Men's max 93
nike shox
Nike air force
Nike air max 2003
nike air max ltd
nike air max tn
Nike air rift
Nike air Yeezy
nike airmax
Nike air max 90
Nike air max 97
nike birds nest shoes
nike dunk
nike RT1 shoes
nike SB
nike shox shoes
Nike shox OZ shoes
Nike shox R2 shoes
Nike shox R3 shoes
Nike shox R4 shoes
Nike shox R5 shoes
Nike shox TL3
nike trainers lovers

tennis rackets
Wilson tennis rackets
HEAD tennis rackets
Babolat tennis rackets

Kevin said...

牙醫,植牙,矯正,紋身,刺青,創業,批發,皮膚科,痘痘,中醫,飛梭雷射,毛孔粗大,醫學美容,seo,關鍵字行銷,關鍵字自然排序,網路行銷,關鍵字自然排序,關鍵字行銷seo,關鍵字廣告,部落格行銷,網路行銷,seo,關鍵字行銷,關鍵字廣告,關鍵字,自然排序,部落格行銷,網路行銷,網路爆紅,牛舌餅婚紗台中婚紗,腳臭,腳臭,腳臭,腳臭,腳臭,腳臭,腳臭,中古車,二手車,中古車,二手車,高雄婚紗,搬家,搬家公司,服飾批發,團體服,街舞

Anonymous said...

翻譯|醫學美容|汽車報廢|童裝批發|家教|室內裝潢|徵信|清境民宿|催情性藥品

polo shirt said...

Do not mean bad.Thank you so much! I just want to show some fashion wedding dress to all of you. I like wedding dresses, because wedding for a girl, it is the most special day in her life. Do you want to have the beautiful wedding dresses in perfect day??

polo shirt said...

Fantastic! God bless you! Meanwhile, we have the highest quality but the lowest price fashion cheap wedding dresses. Here are the most popular designer wedding dresses and lace wedding dresses for all of you. Also the cheap evening dresses is a great choice for you. Let you dream come ture!!

polo shirt said...

Perfect!! You are a outstanding person! Do you want to wear stunning discount wedding dresses and join the party wearing beautiful cheap prom dresses?? Or you want all people's eyes can't move from you? The evening formal dresses are the best gift for you!

polo shirt said...

Best wishes for you! May be you are interested in party cocktail dresses, and you may need cheap bridesmaid dress for you special Occasions. We can provide cheap cocktail dresses, cheap flower girl dresses even the plus size wedding dresses. You can choose that you like!

crazyloko said...

China Wholesalers has been described as the world’s factory. buy products wholesaleThis phenomenom is typified by the rise ofbusiness. Incredible range of products available with China Wholesale “Low Price and High Quality” not only reaches directly to their target clients worldwide but also ensures that wholesale from china from China means margins you cannot find elsewhere and China Wholesale will skyroket your profits.china wholesale productsbuy china wholesalewholesale chinawholesale productsbuy products

Peejay Li said...

I would like to be the supporter of yours. Thank you for sharing such a nice article.
chaussures puma
puma speed cat
Nike Tn Chaussures
requin tn
nike shox
puma shoes
puma CAT
puma basket
puma speed
baskets puma
puma sport
puma femmes
puma shox r4 torch
nike air max requin
nike shox r3
shox rival r3
tn plus
chaussures shox
nike shox r4 torch
air max tn requin
nike tn femme
pas cher nike
tn chaussures
nike rift
nike shox nz
chaussures shox
nike shox rival
shox rival
chaussures requin
jeans online
cheap armani jeans
cheap G-star jeans

lady said...

I like the side of the article, and very like your blog, to write well and hope to continue their efforts, we can see more of your articles. ed hardy clothes. After reading this article has strong feelings, the future will be Changlaikankan's.ed hardy swimwear. polo hoodies
ed hardy jeans
ed hardy
ed hardy clothing
ed hardy t-shirts
ed hardy clothes
ed-hardy.co.uk
ed hardy shirts
ed hardy mens
ed hardy clothes
ed hardy womens
ed hardy sunglasses
ed hardy swimwear
ed hardy Jeans
ed hardy hoodies
ed hardy bags
ed hardy trousers
ed hardy shoes
ed hardy sunglasses
ed hardy suits
ed
hardy
ed hardy dresses
ed hardy boots
ed hardy mens sweater
ed hardy womens cotton
ed hardy womens boots

season said...

Your article is very good.I like it very much.
Once upon a time, there was a mouse father.He wanted to marry his daughter to the greatest person in the world.But, who was the greatest person in the world?Oh!
puma ferrari shoes
cheap nike shoesThe sun! He must be the greatest person in the world.The mouse father went to talk to the sun."Hello! Mr. Sun.
puma shoes
ferrari shoes
I know you are the greatest person in the world.Would you marry my daughter?""What? I'm not the greatest person in the world. The greatest person is the cloud.If he comes out, I’ll be covered."
nike shox nz
Ugg Boots
The mouse father went to talk to the cloud. “Hello! Mr. Cloud. I know you are the greatest person in the world. Would you marry my daughter?”
nike 360 air max
nike shox shoes
“What? I’m not the greatest person in the world. The greatest person is the wind.If he comes out, I’ll be blown away.”
cheap puma shoes
puma drift cat
The mouse father went to talk to the wind. “Hello! Mr. Wind. I know you are the greatest person in the world.Would you marry my daughter?” “What? I’m not the greatest person in the world. The greatest person is the wall. If he comes out, I’ll be stopped.”
cheap nike shox
nike air max 360
The mouse father went to talk to the wall. “Hello! Mr. Wall. I know you are the greatest person in the world. Would you marry my daughter?” “What? I’m not the greatest person in the world. The greatest person is YOU, the mouse.” “The greatest person in the world is … mouse?” “Yes, the greatest person in the world is mouse. See? If mouse comes out, I’ll be bit!”
nike air max
pumas shoes
The mouse father was very happy. He finally knew mouse was the greatest person in the world. He would marry his daughter to the handsome mouse next door.
cheap jeans
cheap levis jeans
ed hardy jeans

Miqdad said...

My review Catatanku Noticia Orient Inspiration Automotive Audio Video Business Computer Entertainment My Note Duniasoer mem 73

Adi said...

Oes Tsetnoc one of the ways in which we can learn seo besides Mengembalikan Jati Diri Bangsa. By participating in the Oes Tsetnoc or Mengembalikan Jati Diri Bangsa we can improve our seo skills. To find more information about Oest Tsetnoc please visit my Oes Tsetnoc pages. And to find more information about Mengembalikan Jati Diri Bangsa please visit my Mengembalikan Jati Diri Bangsa pages. Thank you So much.
Oes Tsetnoc | Semangat Mengembalikan Jati Diri Bangsa

Anonymous said...

o‰ï‚¢‹i’ƒo‰ï‚¢ƒJƒtƒFƒeƒŒƒNƒ‰•s—σZƒbƒNƒXƒtƒŒƒ“ƒhƒZƒtƒŒo‰ï‚¢o‰ï‚¢o‰ï‚¢ŒfŽ¦”o‰ï‚¢o‰ï‚¢o‰ï‚¢lÈ•—‘­ƒfƒŠƒwƒ‹ƒfƒŠƒoƒŠ[ƒwƒ‹ƒXo‰ï‚¢o‰ï‚¢–³—¿ƒtƒBƒŠƒsƒ“ƒ‰ƒCƒuƒ`ƒƒƒbƒgƒAƒ_ƒ‹ƒgƒ‰ƒCƒuƒ`ƒƒƒbƒgƒfƒŠƒwƒ‹

Anonymous said...

•s“®ŽYƒ\[ƒvƒ‰ƒ“ƒhƒAƒNƒZƒXƒJƒEƒ“ƒ^[ƒRƒŒƒXƒeƒ[ƒ‹’†«Ž‰–b‰Ô•²ÇÝ‘[ƒN“àEÝ‘îƒAƒ‹ƒoƒCƒgŠ£‘‡”§ƒ_ƒCƒGƒbƒg@HŽ–ƒTƒvƒŠƒƒ“ƒg–³—¿è‚¢o‰ï‚¢ŽRŒûƒNƒŒƒWƒbƒgƒJ[ƒhŒ»‹à‰»ƒNƒŒƒWƒbƒgŒ»‹à‰»ƒ‰ƒCƒuƒ`ƒƒƒbƒgƒtƒBƒŠƒsƒ“ƒ`ƒƒƒbƒgƒŒƒfƒBƒpƒ\ƒRƒ“Ý‘[ƒN

Anonymous said...

ƒjƒLƒrCholesterol…’Ž—₦«‚Þ‚­‚ÝŽYŒã‚í‚«‚ªŽÔ”ƒŽæ“]E‰Á—îL“V‘RƒIƒŠƒS“œ’ܐ…’Ž‹ž“s‚«‚à‚̍ݑîŽdŽ–

Anonymous said...

o‰ï‚¢ŒF–{o‰ï‚¢‹ž“so‰ï‚¢ŽOdo‰ï‚¢‹{éo‰ï‚¢‹{èo‰ï‚¢’·–ìo‰ï‚¢’·èo‰ï‚¢“ޗǏo‰ï‚¢VŠƒo‰ï‚¢‘啪o‰ï‚¢‰ªŽRo‰ï‚¢‰«“êo‰ï‚¢‘åão‰ï‚¢²‰êo‰ï‚¢é‹Êo‰ï‚¢Ž ‰êo‰ï‚¢“‡ªo‰ï‚¢Ã‰ªo‰ï‚¢“Ȗ؏o‰ï‚¢“¿“‡

Anonymous said...

o‰ï‚¢“Œ‹žo‰ï‚¢’¹Žæo‰ï‚¢•xŽRo‰ï‚¢˜a‰ÌŽRo‰ï‚¢ŽRŒ`o‰ï‚¢ŽRŒûo‰ï‚¢ŽR—œo‰ï‚¢–k‹ãBo‰ï‚¢‰ºŠÖo‰ï‚¢ìèo‰ï‚¢_ŒËo‰ï‚¢‹v—¯•Äo‰ï‚¢…ŒËo‰ï‚¢–¼ŒÃ‰®o‰ï‚¢‘å–´“co‰ï‚¢é‹Êo‰ï‚¢äo‰ï‚¢å‘äo‰ï‚¢‰¡•lo‰ï‚¢‰¡{‰êo‰ï‚¢ŽD–yo‰ï‚¢ìè

Anonymous said...

•Ÿˆäo‰ï‚¢ˆ¤’mo‰ï‚¢Šò•Œo‰ï‚¢Ã‰ªo‰ï‚¢ŽOdo‰ï‚¢•ºŒÉo‰ï‚¢‘åão‰ï‚¢˜a‰ÌŽRo‰ï‚¢Ž ‰êo‰ï‚¢‹ž“so‰ï‚¢“ޗǏo‰ï‚¢ŽRŒûo‰ï‚¢’¹Žæo‰ï‚¢“‡ªo‰ï‚¢‰ªŽRo‰ï‚¢L“‡o‰ï‚¢“¿“‡o‰ï‚¢ìo‰ï‚¢ˆ¤•Qo‰ï‚¢‚’mo‰ï‚¢

Anonymous said...

o‰ï‚¢ŒF–{o‰ï‚¢‹ž“so‰ï‚¢ŽOdo‰ï‚¢‹{éo‰ï‚¢‹{èo‰ï‚¢’·–ìo‰ï‚¢’·èo‰ï‚¢“ޗǏo‰ï‚¢VŠƒo‰ï‚¢‘啪o‰ï‚¢‰ªŽRo‰ï‚¢‰«“êo‰ï‚¢‘åão‰ï‚¢²‰êo‰ï‚¢é‹Êo‰ï‚¢Ž ‰êo‰ï‚¢“‡ªo‰ï‚¢Ã‰ªo‰ï‚¢“Ȗ؏o‰ï‚¢“¿“‡

Anonymous said...

•Ÿˆäo‰ï‚¢ƒJƒtƒFˆ¤’mo‰ï‚¢ƒJƒtƒFŠò•Œo‰ï‚¢ƒJƒtƒFÃ‰ªo‰ï‚¢ƒJƒtƒFŽOdo‰ï‚¢ƒJƒtƒF•ºŒÉo‰ï‚¢ƒJƒtƒF‘åão‰ï‚¢ƒJƒtƒF˜a‰ÌŽRo‰ï‚¢ƒJƒtƒFŽ ‰êo‰ï‚¢ƒJƒtƒF‹ž“so‰ï‚¢ƒJƒtƒF“ޗǏo‰ï‚¢ƒJƒtƒFŽRŒûo‰ï‚¢ƒJƒtƒF’¹Žæo‰ï‚¢ƒJƒtƒF“‡ªo‰ï‚¢ƒJƒtƒF‰ªŽRo‰ï‚¢ƒJƒtƒFL“‡o‰ï‚¢ƒJƒtƒF“¿“‡o‰ï‚¢ƒJƒtƒFìo‰ï‚¢ƒJƒtƒFˆ¤•Qo‰ï‚¢ƒJƒtƒF‚’mo‰ï‚¢ƒJƒtƒF

Anonymous said...

•ŸˆäƒeƒŒƒNƒ‰ˆ¤’mƒeƒŒƒNƒ‰Šò•ŒƒeƒŒƒNƒ‰Ã‰ªƒeƒŒƒNƒ‰ŽOdƒeƒŒƒNƒ‰•ºŒÉƒeƒŒƒNƒ‰‘åãƒeƒŒƒNƒ‰˜a‰ÌŽRƒeƒŒƒNƒ‰Ž ‰êƒeƒŒƒNƒ‰‹ž“sƒeƒŒƒNƒ‰“ޗǃeƒŒƒNƒ‰ŽRŒûƒeƒŒƒNƒ‰’¹ŽæƒeƒŒƒNƒ‰“‡ªƒeƒŒƒNƒ‰‰ªŽRƒeƒŒƒNƒ‰L“‡ƒeƒŒƒNƒ‰“¿“‡ƒeƒŒƒNƒ‰ìƒeƒŒƒNƒ‰ˆ¤•QƒeƒŒƒNƒ‰‚’mƒeƒŒƒNƒ‰

Anonymous said...

•ŸˆäƒZƒtƒŒˆ¤’mƒZƒtƒŒŠò•ŒƒZƒtƒŒÃ‰ªƒZƒtƒŒŽOdƒZƒtƒŒ•ºŒÉƒZƒtƒŒ‘åãƒZƒtƒŒ˜a‰ÌŽRƒZƒtƒŒŽ ‰êƒZƒtƒŒ‹ž“sƒZƒtƒŒ“ޗǃZƒtƒŒŽRŒûƒZƒtƒŒ’¹ŽæƒZƒtƒŒ“‡ªƒZƒtƒŒ‰ªŽRƒZƒtƒŒL“‡ƒZƒtƒŒ“¿“‡ƒZƒtƒŒìƒZƒtƒŒˆ¤•QƒZƒtƒŒ‚’mƒZƒtƒŒ

Anonymous said...

•Ÿˆä•s—ψ¤’m•s—ÏŠò•Œ•s—ϐɪ•s—ÏŽOd•s—Ï•ºŒÉ•s—Ï‘åã•s—Ϙa‰ÌŽR•s—ÏŽ ‰ê•s—Ï‹ž“s•s—Ï“Þ—Ç•s—ÏŽRŒû•s—Ï’¹Žæ•s—Ï“‡ª•s—ωªŽR•s—ύL“‡•s—Ï“¿“‡•s—ύì•s—ψ¤•Q•s—ύ‚’m•s—Ï

Anonymous said...

—D—Ǐo‰ï‚¢ƒTƒCƒgƒAƒ_ƒ‹ƒg“ŽB‘fln—ƒGƒƒAƒjƒAV——Doˆ§‚¢o‡‚¢ŒnƒTƒCƒg‚Å‚ ‚¢deai•s—Ï•s—Ï‚µ‚Ä‚Ý‚Ü‚¹‚ñ‚©•s—σp[ƒgƒi[•s—ψ¤l2ƒVƒ‡ƒbƒgƒ`ƒƒƒbƒgo‰ï‚¢•s—ϐlÈƒNƒŒƒWƒbƒgƒJ[ƒh

zhuneilixu said...

The cold winter, does not seem too for wedding. Most recently, the cold one after another,

hangzhou air temperature pelter, let many wedding in late November bride is due a single wear

gauze or dress, will feel cold, wear too much and feel very bloated. For the bride, the winter is

the biggest test how wedding in temperature and balance between poise.

Don't be too upset, actually this season only fees cheap Wedding Dresses, marriage can create a different

character "winter wedding", also more memorable.

You can use the glittering and translucent white fairy tale, cheap cell phones
,the artistic conception to dress up oneself's wedding, choose blue, green, white ice cold tonal,

decorous atmosphere to create beautiful, Can borrow snow machine and bubble machine build indoor

romantic atmosphere, snowflake, feathers, Christmas tree,cheap cocktail

dresses
, even is the element such as silver crystal, can add to your winter wedding dreamy

colour, cheap

jewelry
you can even in a pile of snowman YingBinChu lovely, guests, we must take it and will

soon be well.

Wholesale Polo Shirts
Ralph Lauren Polo Shirts
Discount Ralph Lauren Polos

Anonymous said...

handbags
handbag
Hand bags
Hand bag
Burberry Handbag
Chanel Handbag
Gucci Handbag
Prada Handbag
Juicy Handbag
D&G Handbag
LV Handbag

mamamia said...

herve leger
herve leger dresses

chanel
chanel iman
chanel outlet
chanel handbag
Chanel Wallet
Chanel Watch
chanel purse

Chanel Sunglasses
chanel bags
chanel earrings
chanel jewelry
chanel shoes

mamamia said...

ghd
cheap ghd
ghd straighteners
Benefit GHD
GHD IV Salon Styler
GHD MINI STYLER
GHD Precious gift
Gold GHD
Kiss GHD
New pink GHD
Pink GHD
Pure Black GHD
Pure White GHD
Purple GHD
Rare GHD
Babyliss
polo boots
polo shoes
cheap straighteners
ghd hair straighteners
hair straighteners
Purple GHD IV Styler
Pure White GHD
Pure Black GHD
Pink GHD IV Styler
Kiss GHD Styler
Gray GHD IV Styler
Gold GHD IV Styler
GHD Rare Styler
GHD IV Salon Styler
Black GHD IV Styler
Benefit GHD IV Styler

sunny said...

mbt
mbt sandals
mbt sale

mbt
mbt sandals
mbt sale

mbt
mbt sandals
mbt sale

mbt
mbt sandals
mbt sale

mbt
mbt sandals
mbt sale

mbt
mbt sandals
mbt sale

mbt
mbt sandals
mbt sale

mbt
mbt sandals
mbt sale

my blog said...

i want to show you the following products:
gucci boots
gucci shoes
gucci t-shirt
gucci bags
gucci handbags
gucci clothing
gucci watch
gucci sunglasses
gucci jewelry
gucci boots
gucci shoes
gucci t-shirt
gucci bags
gucci handbags
gucci clothing
gucci watch
gucci sunglasses
gucci jewelry
gucci boots
gucci shoes
gucci t-shirt
gucci bags
gucci handbags
gucci clothing
gucci watch
gucci sunglasses
gucci jewelry

Anny said...

Cheap GHD Straighteners , GHD Styler and babyliss , babyliss pro babyliss hair babyliss i trim babyliss you curl babyliss flat iron babyliss hair straightener babyliss straightener babyliss straightening irons , Benefit GHD , CHI Hair Straightener , GHD Mini Styler , GHD IV Salon Styler, GHD Rare Styler, Gold GHD, Kiss GHD and Gray GHD , Pink GHD , Purple GHD , Pure Black GHD , Pure White GHD as well as New GHD .

Anny said...

Sunglasses, Cheap Sunglasses or Discount Sunglasses Armani Sunglasses, Burberry Sunglasses , Cartier Sunglasses , D&G Sunglasses ( cheap D&G sunglasses or discount D&G sunglasses), Dior Sunglasses and Fendi Sunglasses Gucci Sunglasses ( discount gucci sunglasses or cheap gucci sunglasses), Oakley Sunglasses ( in other words cheap oakley sunglasses or discount oakley sunglasses ), Police Sunglasses , ED Hardy Sunglasses , LV Sunglasses , Versace Sunglasses Ray Ban Sunglasses, Roberto Cavalli Sunglasses, Prada Sunglasses( cheap prada sunglasses or discount prada sunglasses Chanel Sunglasses , Coach Sunglasses .

Anny said...

ED Hardy , ED Hardy Clothes,
ED Hardy Hats, ED Hardy Caps , ED Hardy Sunglasses, ED Hardy Hoodies, ED Hardy Shirts ,
ED Hardy Bikini,
ED Hardy Jeans , ED Hardy Shoes

Prada, Pradas, prada handbags, prada handbag , prada bags, prada bag, prada sunglasses, prada sunglass,
prada shoes, prada sneakers, prada purses, prada wallets,
Prada Wallet, prada wallpaper

Hanthan said...

air max light
air max bw
air max plus
air max 180
air max nike
air max TN
air max 87
air max 2010
air max outlet
timberland
timberland boots
timberland shoes
cheap timberland boots
timberland uk
timberlands
timberland 2010
timberland outlet
bag
bags
handbag
handbags
Coach new bags
Chanel new bags
D&G new bags
Burberry new bags
Prada new bags
ED Hardy new bags
CHOLE new bags
Fendi new bags
Dooney&Bourke new bags
Juicy new bags
LV new bags
Gucci new bags

Hanthan said...

Armani Sunglasses
Burberry Sunglasses
Cartier Sunglasses
Chanel Sunglasses
Coach Sunglasses
D&G Sunglasses
Dior Sunglasses
ED Hardy Sunglasses
Fendi Sunglasses
LV Sunglasses
Oakley Sunglasses
Police Sunglasses
Ray Ban Sunglasses
Roberto Cavalli Sunglasses
Versace Sunglasses
cheap gucci sunglasses
cheap prada sunglasses
cheap D&G sunglasses
discount gucci sunglasses
discount prada sunglasses
discotunt D&G sunglasses
cheap oaklay sunglasses
discount oaklay sunglasses
sunglasses outlet
air max,Nike air max
air max 90
nike air max 90
air max 1
air max 95
nike air max 360
nike air max ltd
air max ltd
air max 360
air max classic,Air Max Huarache

月月 said...

jordan 9
jordan 10
jordan 11
jordan 12
jordan 13
jordan 14
jordan 15
jordan 16
jordan 17 rings
jordan 18
jordan 19
jordan 20
jordan 21

ally said...

Fashion trends change on daily basis, like Gold GHD. Following the latest in designer shades has become a passion of everyone, now Burberry Sunglasses. If you are the type of a woman who loves to explore in fashion, our ED Hardy Sunglasses will definitely satisfy your taste. Cheap Ed Hardy Sunglasses is also OK. Ed hardy streak of clothing is expanded into its wholesale ED Hardy T-shirt chain so that a large number of fans and users can enjoy the cheap ED Hardy Clothing range easily with the help of numerous secured websites, actually, our ED Hardy Outlet. As we all know, in fact discount ED Hardy, is based on the creations of the world renowned tattoo artist Don Ed Hardy. Well, this question is bound to strike the minds of all individuals. Many people may say Prada shoes is a joke, but we can give you Prada Sunglasses, because we have Prada handbags. Almost everyone will agree that Prada Purses are some of the most beautiful designer handbags marketed today. Now we have one new product: Prada totes. The reason is simple: fashion prohibited by ugg boots, in other words, we can say it as Cheap ugg boots. Would you like to wear Discount ugg boots. We have two kinds of fashionable boots: classic ugg boots and ugg classic tall boots. Ankh Royalty--the Cultural Revolution. Straightens out the collar, the epaulette epaulet, the Ankh Royalty Clothing two-row buckle. Now welcome to our Ankh Royalty Outlet. And these are different products that bear the most famous names in the world of fashion, like Ankh Royalty T shirt by the way -Prada, Spyder, Moncler(Moncler jackets,or you can say Moncler coats, Moncler T-shirt, Moncler vest,and you can buy them from our discount Moncler outlet), GHD, ED Hardy, Ankh Royalty, Twisted Heart.

ally said...

moncler jacketsmonclermoncler coatsmoncler t-shirtmoncler vestmoncler outletugg bootscheap ugg bootsdiscount ugg bootsugg classic tall bootsclassic ugg bootsmoncler jacketsmoncler
new moncler coatsmoncler vestmoncler outletmoncler polo t-shirtcoach outletcoach handbagscoach bagscoach totescoach outletlouis vuitton handbagsLV handbags 2010Louis Vuitton bags
Louis Vuitton totesrain bootsrainweardiesel jeansTure Religion Jeanslevis jeansabercrombie and fitch outlet
ed hardy wholesaleed hardy outletcheap ed hardy wholesalediscount ed hardy wholesalewholesale ed hardyGHDGHD straightenersCheap GHDDiscount GHDGHD OutletGHD New Pink