Monday, April 10, 2006

Culture and Perception: The Role of the Physical Environment

Every time someone asks me about cultural differences in cognition, be it a student, a blog reader, or my mother, I cringe. I mean, sure, I can tell them about the various differences that have been observed in the laboratory, and point them to books like The Geography of Thought, but inevitably, they'll ask what causes the observed differences, and I have to tell them I don't know. No one does, really. The problem is that there hasn't been much experimental work designed to determine what might be causing these differences. Most of the empirical work amounts to demonstrations that the differences do exist. I usually tell people that there are a few possible explanations for the differences. The first possible explanation is that the differences are innate, that is, that something about the differences in the genetic make up of Europeans and East Asians, for example, causes differences in perception, conception, and reasoning. However, there's no evidence whatsoever for innate causes, so we can probably rule this type of explanation out. The second possible explanation is that there are differences in the environments of Europeans and East Asians, and that these differences somehow cause differences in cognition and perception. A third possible explanation is that the cognitive and perceptual differences are due entirely to differences in culture that arose purely by historical accident. And finally, a fourth explanation, along the lines of the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis, is that language differences cause cognitive and perceptual differences.

The problem, for researchers, with these last three levels of explanations is that they would all interact, and it would be difficult, if not impossible to tease them apart in practice. And of course, there are all sorts of observed differences, which may all have different causes. The best we can do, then, is look to see whether manipulating something from the environment, culture, or language (which, I know, isn't really separate from culture, but neither is the environment) affects a particular cultural difference. This won't tell us where that level fits in the causal chain, but it would at least be positive evidence that it fits in it somewhere. For example, by manipulating an hypothesized effect of culture, like fear of isolation, we can show that one factor resides at the level of culture, or by showing that cultures with different numbers of color terms perceive colors differently, we can show that language has some influence. Having talked about those levels in previous posts, I thought I'd talk a little bit about the potential role of the environment this time. Again, looking at one level doesn't exclude the other levels, because we don't know how the different levels might interact. It just says that that level plays a role. So the purpose of the research I'm going to describe is not to show that perception is the cause of cultural differences in cognition and perception, just that it might be one among many.

One interesting observed difference between Europeans an East Asian (e.g., Japanese and Filipinos) has to do with attention and perception. The difference is usually framed in terms of analytic vs. holistic perception. For example, in one experiment1, Japanese and European American participants were first given a square (which served as the frame) with a line inside it (see the figure below). That square was then removed, and they were given an empty square different in size from the original, and asked to draw a line inside it that was either the same length as the original line (absolute condition) or that had the same length relative to the frame (relative condition).

Figure 1 from Ishii & Kitayama (2003).

The European American participants were significantly more accurate than the Japanese participants in the absolute condition, while the Japanese participants were significantly more accurate than the European American participants in the relative task.

In another experiment2, this one on "change blindness", European American and Japanese participants were presented with moving scenes. In each scene, there were large, "rapidly moving" foreground objects set against a static background scene. In one condition, aspects of the objects in the foreground changed, while in others, aspects of the static background changed. European Americans were significantly better than the Japanese participants at detecting changes to foreground objects, while Japanese participants were better at detecting changes to the background.

These findings, and others, have been used to argue that Europeans tend to focus their attention on objects, independent of context (i.e., to attend and perceive analytically), while East Asians focus on the context (attending and perceiving holistically). But again, they just demonstrate the difference, and weren't designed to assess any causal hypotheses. However, these findings do contain clues. Miyamoto, Nisbett, and Masuda3 noted that in the change blindness experiment, when the participants were shown Japanese scenes, both the European Americans and Japanese noticed more changes to the background than to the foreground objects, and when the scenes were American scenes, participants from both cultures detected more changes in the foreground objects. Might there be some difference in typical scenes to which people from the two different cultures are exposed, then, and might these differences influence the adoption of particular attentional styles?

To answer this question, Miyamoto et al. first gathered photos of scenes from similar contexts (schools, hotels, and post offices) from six cities, three in the U.S. and three in Japan. For each country, one of the cities was a small city (population less than 5,000), one medium-sized (population ~100,000), and one large (population ~8,000,000). Examples of the photos are below. They hypothesized that at each city-size, the Japanese scenes would be more "complex" and "ambiguous" than the American scenes. This, they further hypothesized, would cause the Japanese scenes to prime the holistic, context-focused attentional style observed in East Asian participants in previous experiments, while the American scenes would prime the analytic, object-focused attentional style observed in American participants. To test the first hypothesis, they used two measures of complexity and ambiguity. For the first, they presented participants with 82 photos, 41 of Japanese scenes and 41 of American, and asked them to answer the following four questions about each photo (on a 5-point scale):
  • "How ambiguous is the boundary of each object?"
  • "How many different objects do there seem to be?"
  • "To what degree do there seem to be parts of the scene that are invisible?"
  • "To what degree is the scene either chaotic or organized?"
Answers to these four questions were highly correlated, so they combined them together to form a composite score of "complexity-ambiguity." On this score, the Japanese scenes were rated as significantly more complex/ambiguous than American scenes. Using a computer program designed to detect objects in photographs, they then counted the number of objects (excluding things like leaves) in each scene, and consistent with the ratings, found that the Japanese scenes contained more objects than the American scenes.

Having shown that the Japanese scenes were indeed more complex and ambiguous, Miyamoto et al. conducted another change blindness study to test their second hypothesis. In this study, culturally neutral scenes were presented to both Japanese and European American participants. In each scene, changes occurred either in the background or to foreground objects, as in the previous change blindness experiments. In this experiment, though, participants were primed with either Japanese or American scenes prior to viewing the culturally neutral scenes. Miyamoto et al. predicted that priming them with scenes from Japanese cities would prime holistic attentional focus, and the American scenes would prime analytic attentional focus, regardless of whether the participants were Japanese or American.

As in the previous change-blindness study, Japanese participants in this study perceived more changes to the background, overall, than American participants, though both American and Japanese participants detected about the same number of changes to foreground objects. In essence, Japanese participants detected more changes than American participants. More importantly, when primed with scenes from Japanese cities, both the American and Japanese participants detected more changes to the background than when they were primed with American scenes, and when primed with American scenes, Japanese participants detected more changes to foreground objects than when primed with Japanese scenes. American participants' detection of changes to foreground objects did not differ as a function of the type of priming image.

Overall, then, the data is consistent with the second hypothesis, that the different types of scenes in the two countries contribute to the differences in attentional style between the two cultures. Miyamoto et al. don't really offer any reasons why this might be. Perhaps the greater complexity in the Japanese scenes makes attending to specific objects more difficult, or makes each individual object slightly less salient, thus making it easier and more effective to attend to the overall context. They do, however, make it clear that differences in the complexity and ambiguity of the scenes is not likely to be the only cause of the differences in attention, and that there may be cultural factors that influence what types of scenes predominate in a particular culture, though they don't speculate on what those factors might be. In the final analysis, then, the study doesn't tell us a whole heck of a lot. At least the study provides a step in the right direction though, in that it shows that there are environmental factors at work in shaping cultural styles in attention and perception. So, while the study doesn't add anything to my answer to questions about cultural differences in cognition, it at least lets me feel more confident in telling people that environmental factors are one type of potential cause.

1Ishii, K., & Kitayama, S. (2003). Selective attention to contextual information in Japan. Poster presented at 25th Annual meeting of Cognitive Science Society; Kitayama, S., Duffy, S., Kawamura, T., & Larsen, J.T. (2003). Perceiving an object and its context in different cultures: a cultural look at new look." Psychological Science, 14(3), 201-206.
2Masuda, T., & Nisbett, R.E. (In Press). Culture and change blindness. Cognitive Science.
3Miyamoto, Y., Nisbett, R.E., & Masuda, T. (2006). Culture and the physical environment: Holistic versus analytic perceptual affordances. Psychological Science, 17(2), 113-119.


Anonymous said...

Interesting article, but I'm a bit puzzled by something you say in the first paragraph:

However, there's no evidence whatsoever for innate causes, so we can probably rule this type of explanation out.

Given that innate causes would normally be mixed up with environmental, cultural and linguistic causes, how can you rule them out? It's obvious that there is a considerable range of genetic diversity within the human species; there is no good a priori reason to assume that this diversity is only skin deep.

Indeed, it can't have always been that way or the human mind couldn't have evolved from our ape ancestors. Whether or not there is genetic variation in minds now and whether or not it is distributed unevenly between ethnic groups, there definitely has been such variation in the past - which makes it even more bizarre to say without evidence that there couldn't possibly be any now.

So have there been studies that attempt to separate genetic causes from cultural, environmental and linguistic causes (including prenatal environment, which shows how difficult this is)? If so, how? If not, how can you "rule out" an explanation that hasn't been seriously examined and has a plausible mechanism?

It seems likely to me that the question hasn't been seriously examined (because it's a political hot potato and/or because of the swarm of confounding variables) and that people reflexively deny it in order not to seem like racists. But there's a big difference between honestly studying statistical differences between ethnic groups and jumping to conclusions about individuals based on prejudice.

Also, it seems kind of misleading to describe a scene consisting largely of human artifacts as the "physical environment", a phrase which (especially when contrasted with culture) implies *nonhuman* physical environment: the Sahara, the Amazon basin, etc. Clearly, many aspects of those scenes are themselves influenced by the people who quite literally designed and built them. Could there be a "when in Rome" effect going on here too, where people exposed to the trappings of a particular culture become primed to imitate it?

Blar said...

Why did Miyamoto et al. leave complexity-ambiguity confounded with country in their priming study? In order to show that the priming effect is due to complexity-ambiguity, and not some other difference between Japanese and American scenes, shouldn't they have primed separate groups of participats with American scenes high in complexity-ambiguity, American scenes low in complexity-ambiguity, Japanese scenes high in complexity-ambiguity, and Japanese scenes low in complexity-ambiguity?

Chris said...

Blar, they primed neutral scenes, and they used both types of primes with people of both nationalities. So I don't see any confound.

Anon, first, it is their physical environment, whether it's man-made or not. Second, the differences between genetic cues and the other three kinds are many. First, you can look directly for genetic differences (look at our DNA). Second, you can look for the sorts of things that come with genetic change (differences showing up early, in a predictable developmental pattern, and so on). Third, if genetic factors were to blame, then you wouldn't be able to manipulate holistic vs. analytic thinking simply by changing something about the physical or social environment. Fourth (and perhaps most importantly), people who are born to East Asian parents don't develop holistic styles if they're born and raised in the U.S. (I don't know of any study looking at European children born and raised in East Asia).

Chris said...

Blar, oops, I read your comment wrong, so I answered it wrong. Sorry about that. The answer is no, they didn't confound complexity with country. The fact that they used small, medium, and large cities helps avoid that (large cities were significantly more complex than medium cities, and medium cities than small cities). New York City (the large U.S. city) was more complex and amgbiguous than the Japanese small and medium cities. They don't report data on the priming of scenes from specific cities, but since each comparison is done relative to the city level, you would predict that the New York scenes would prime more holistic processing than the Japanese medium and small scenes.

Blar said...

Chris, my concern (and desire for another study) might be clearer if we look at their studies in the opposite order from how they presented them. They found, roughly, that priming people with photos of Japan makes them act more like Japanese people in tests of holistic vs. analytic perception, and priming them with photos of America makes them act more like Americans. That's an interesting finding, and it suggests that the physical environment can play some role in holistic vs. analytic perception, but it's not clear what role that is, or what features of the photos made them serve as effective primes. Maybe it's just that photos with Japanese content prime Eastern cognition and photos with American content prime Western cognition. Their hypothesis is that something visual about the physical environment, its complexity-ambiguity, is part of the explanation, and they show in their other study that the two sets of photos do differ in their complexity-ambiguity. The obvious next step, to show that this difference in complexity-ambiguity is causally relevant, is to isolate this variable and see what happens to perception when you prime people with photos that differ in complexity-ambiguity but are otherwise as similar as possible (most importantly, from the same country). They don't take this next step*, which is the concern that I was trying to raise in my previous comment.

* or so it appears from your write-up. Would you be able to send me the original journal article or provide a link? In case you need my email address, it's at hotmail-dot-com under the name "blarghblog". Thanks.

Chris said...

Blar, actually, that's a very good point. I think they try to use the New York data to address it, but it would really require a more controlled study to show that it is the complexity/ambiguity of the scenes that is causing the differences in attentional focus. You can read the penultimate draft of the paper here. I wonder if Nisbett and his colleagues are working on a study like the one you suggest. It would be pretty easy to do.

Todd said...

Pretty interesting stuff. My initial reaction to Nisebett et al.'s research was to raise some of the same concerns that Blar had, specifically that the scenes may not be as comparable we would like them to be (or, maybe that's the point?). In other words, it seems as though the first step would be to use the same setting (American or Asian, or both) and vary the number and location of objects within it to test for significant differences in perception. If such effects are found, then we can feel more confident about this complexity-ambiguity dimension (and its impact upon perception). Then, of course, the next step would be to do the kind of research that Nisbett & colleagues have done to demonstrate that there are indeed systematic differences in American/European versus Asian environments that, in turn, can lead to differences in analytical-holistic perceptions. Besides this quibble, the studies you discussed are quite fascinating. Thanks for posting on this subject...

Anonymous said...

For those interested, here are some references for other studies related to this issue:

Leonard Meyer and David Huron are cognitive musicologists who have explored the way that familiarity with a musical "style" (i.e. set of schemata, which are based on past listening experience--which is often very cultural specific) affects a given listener's cognitive approach to a piece of music. Huron in particular has compared cognitive approaches for listeners of various cultures and musical backgrounds to music of those various cultures. For example, in an upcoming book, Huron relates the study of how Western Classical listeners and Balinese listeners approached Haydn/Mozart/etc. and gamelan music differently.

Meyer's work is older, and largely speculative, as there wasn't much experimental data available at the time. However, many of his hypotheses have been confirmed or extended by recent research in music cognition. His most useful books are Style and Music, Music, The Arts, and Ideas and Emotion and Meaning in Music.

Huron has a forthcoming book, Sweet Anticipation: The Psychology of Musical Expectation, which addresses the role of familiarity and expectation in cognition and schema development.

Also, recently summarized a soon-to-be-published study on the role that geographic landscapes in a particular region affected the look of written language as it developed in that region. Interestingly, written language characters tended to match shapes familiar in the visual landscape more than it matched shapes which were easy to write/paint/carve. This applies not only for ideographic types of writing, but also phonetic-based characters. The link is here:

Kris (music theorist with particular interest in musical cognition)

Anonymous said...

Ever thought about the 'Self' being a source of explanation for these cultural differences in perception and cognition?

If we all percieve ourselves differently, i.e either as indepdent people largely detached from context, or as interdepdent people largely attached to context, then does it follow we see our external world largely the same?

Is our external world a distortion, a reflection of our Selves?

Anonymous said...

This momentousdecree warcraft leveling came as a great beacon light wow lvl of hope to millions of negroslaves wow power level who had been seared power leveling in the flames of power leveling withering wrath of the lich king power leveling injustice.wrath of the lich king power leveling it came as a WOTLK Power Leveling joyous daybreak to end the long WOTLK Power Leveling night ofcaptivity.WOTLK Power Leveling but one hundred years wlk power leveling later, we must face aoc gold the tragic fact thatthe age of conan power leveling negro is still not free. aoc power leveling one hundred years later,age of conan power leveling the lifeof the negro ffxi gil is still sadly crippled by the final fantasy xi gil manacles ofsegregation guild wars gold and the chains of discrimination. one hundred yearslater, maplestory mesos the negro lives on a lonely island of poverty in themidst of a vast ocean of material clothes one hundred yearslater, the negro is still languishing in the corners of americansociety and finds himself an exile in his own land.

Anonymous said...

看房子,買房子,建商自售,自售,台北新成屋,台北豪宅,新成屋,豪宅,美髮儀器,美髮,儀器,髮型,EMBA,MBA,學位,EMBA,專業認證,認證課程,博士學位,DBA,PHD,在職進修,碩士學位,推廣教育,DBA,進修課程,碩士學位,網路廣告,關鍵字廣告,關鍵字,課程介紹,學分班,文憑,牛樟芝,段木,牛樟菇,日式料理, 台北居酒屋,日本料理,結婚,婚宴場地,推車飲茶,港式點心,尾牙春酒,台北住宿,國內訂房,台北HOTEL,台北婚宴,飯店優惠,台北結婚,婚宴場地,推車飲茶,港式點心,尾牙春酒,住宿,訂房,HOTEL,飯店,造型系列,學位,牛樟芝,腦磷脂,磷脂絲胺酸,SEO,婚宴,捷運,學區,美髮,儀器,髮型,牛樟芝,腦磷脂,磷脂絲胺酸,看房子,買房子,建商自售,自售,房子,捷運,學區,台北新成屋,台北豪宅,新成屋,豪宅,學位,碩士學位,進修,在職進修, 課程,教育,學位,證照,mba,文憑,學分班,網路廣告,關鍵字廣告,關鍵字,SEO,关键词,网络广告,关键词广告,SEO,关键词,网络广告,关键词广告,SEO,台北住宿,國內訂房,台北HOTEL,台北婚宴,飯店優惠,住宿,訂房,HOTEL,飯店,婚宴,台北住宿,國內訂房,台北HOTEL,台北婚宴,飯店優惠,住宿,訂房,HOTEL,飯店,婚宴,台北住宿,國內訂房,台北HOTEL,台北婚宴,飯店優惠,住宿,訂房,HOTEL,飯店,婚宴,結婚,婚宴場地,推車飲茶,港式點心,尾牙春酒,台北結婚,婚宴場地,推車飲茶,港式點心,尾牙春酒,結婚,婚宴場地,推車飲茶,港式點心,尾牙春酒,台北結婚,婚宴場地,推車飲茶,港式點心,尾牙春酒,結婚,婚宴場地,推車飲茶,港式點心,尾牙春酒,台北結婚,婚宴場地,推車飲茶,港式點心,尾牙春酒,居酒屋,燒烤,美髮,儀器,髮型,美髮,儀器,髮型,美髮,儀器,髮型,美髮,儀器,髮型,小套房,小套房,進修,在職進修,留學,證照,MBA,EMBA,留學,MBA,EMBA,留學,進修,在職進修,牛樟芝,段木,牛樟菇,關鍵字排名,網路行銷,关键词排名,网络营销,網路行銷,關鍵字排名,关键词排名,网络营销,PMP,在職專班,研究所在職專班,碩士在職專班,PMP,證照,在職專班,研究所在職專班,碩士在職專班,SEO,廣告,關鍵字,關鍵字排名,網路行銷,網頁設計,網站設計,網站排名,搜尋引擎,網路廣告,SEO,廣告,關鍵字,關鍵字排名,網路行銷,網頁設計,網站設計,網站排名,搜尋引擎,網路廣告,SEO,廣告,關鍵字,關鍵字排名,網路行銷,網頁設計,網站設計,網站排名,搜尋引擎,網路廣告,SEO,廣告,關鍵字,關鍵字排名,網路行銷,網頁設計,網站設計,網站排名,搜尋引擎,網路廣告,EMBA,MBA,PMP


Anonymous said...

nike tnEnter the necessary language
translation, up to 200 bytes winter, moves frequently in Chinanike chaussures showing that the deep strategy of the Chinese market. Harvard Business School, tn chaussures according to the relevant survey data show that in recent years the Chinese market three brands, Adidas, mens clothingpolo shirts Li Ning market share at 21 percent, respectively, 20%, 17%. The brand is first-line to three lines of urban competition for mutual penetration. Side of theworld,announced layoffs, while China's large-scale facilities fists. The sporting goods giant Nike's every move in the winter will be fully s strategy. Years later, the Nike, Inc. announced the world's Fan

Anonymous said...

cheap polos
polo shirts
ralph lauren polo shirtssport shoes
ugg boots
puma shoes
chaussures pumamp4
trade chinalacoste polo shirts
chaussure puma femmewedding dressestennis racket
cheap handbags

Anonymous said...

MENSCLOTHING mans clothing
cheap ugg boots
converse shoes
wedding dresses
wholesale polo shirts
brand clothingcheap clothing
clothes sportspolos shirtair shoesair shoesed hardy clothinged hardy clothing

Anonymous said...

cheap hair straighteners
chi hair straightener
chi flat iron

new polo shirts
cheap Lacoste polo shirts
cheap Lacoste polo shirts

cheap handbags
cheap bags
puma chaussures
chaussures puma
chaussure puma

Men's North Face
Women's North Face

hair straighteners
sexy lingerie store
cheap ugg boots
tattoo wholesale
men's clothing
women's clothing

2009 nike shoes
new nike shoes
Women's max
Men's max 93
nike shox
Nike air force
Nike air max 2003
nike air max ltd
nike air max tn
Nike air rift
Nike air Yeezy
nike airmax
Nike air max 90
Nike air max 97
nike birds nest shoes
nike dunk
nike RT1 shoes
nike SB
nike shox shoes
Nike shox OZ shoes
Nike shox R2 shoes
Nike shox R3 shoes
Nike shox R4 shoes
Nike shox R5 shoes
Nike shox TL3
nike trainers lovers

tennis rackets
Wilson tennis rackets
HEAD tennis rackets
Babolat tennis rackets

Anonymous said...

I am grateful to you for this great content.aöf thanks radyo dinle cool hikaye very nice ssk only cinsellik very nice ehliyet only home free kadın last go korku jomax med olsaoy hikaye lesto go müzik dinle free only film izle love aşk only mp3 indir only radyolar lest go açıköğretim free net only filmler

Anonymous said...

Bon marche de Dofus Kamas.achat de dofus.le prix moins cher.nous vendons dofus,or de Wakfu. 24/7 appui-en-ligne et livraison rapide.Wakfu Kamas
china: chinaserving

Anonymous said...

China Wholesalers has been described as the world’s factory. buy products wholesaleThis phenomenom is typified by the rise ofbusiness. Incredible range of products available with China Wholesale “Low Price and High Quality” not only reaches directly to their target clients worldwide but also ensures that wholesale from china from China means margins you cannot find elsewhere and China Wholesale will skyroket your profits.china wholesale productsbuy china wholesalewholesale chinawholesale productsbuy products

Anonymous said...

We offer designer , custom wedding dress, cheap cell phonescheap wedding dressesbridal gowns, wedding gowns, Flower Girl Dresses andwholesale cell phonesso on. Buy tailor-made anddesigner wedding dresses designer to be a special brides now!

lljj said...

wedding dresses
wedding dress
cheap wedding dresses
discount wedding dresses
plus size wedding dresses
beautiful wedding dresses
designer wedding dresses
lace wedding dresses
cheap prom dresses
cheap evening dresses
evening formal dresses
cheap cocktail dresses
party cocktail dresses
cheap bridesmaid dress
cheap flower girl dresses

Anonymous said...

I would like to be the supporter of yours. Thank you for sharing such a nice article.
chaussures puma
puma speed cat
Nike Tn Chaussures
requin tn
nike shox
puma shoes
puma CAT
puma basket
puma speed
baskets puma
puma sport
puma femmes
puma shox r4 torch
nike air max requin
nike shox r3
shox rival r3
tn plus
chaussures shox
nike shox r4 torch
air max tn requin
nike tn femme
pas cher nike
tn chaussures
nike rift
nike shox nz
chaussures shox
nike shox rival
shox rival
chaussures requin
jeans online
cheap armani jeans
cheap G-star jeans

Anonymous said...

Your article is very good.I like it very much.
Once upon a time, there was a mouse father.He wanted to marry his daughter to the greatest person in the world.But, who was the greatest person in the world?Oh!
puma ferrari shoes
cheap nike shoesThe sun! He must be the greatest person in the world.The mouse father went to talk to the sun."Hello! Mr. Sun.
puma shoes
ferrari shoes
I know you are the greatest person in the world.Would you marry my daughter?""What? I'm not the greatest person in the world. The greatest person is the cloud.If he comes out, I’ll be covered."
nike shox nz
Ugg Boots
The mouse father went to talk to the cloud. “Hello! Mr. Cloud. I know you are the greatest person in the world. Would you marry my daughter?”
nike 360 air max
nike shox shoes
“What? I’m not the greatest person in the world. The greatest person is the wind.If he comes out, I’ll be blown away.”
cheap puma shoes
puma drift cat
The mouse father went to talk to the wind. “Hello! Mr. Wind. I know you are the greatest person in the world.Would you marry my daughter?” “What? I’m not the greatest person in the world. The greatest person is the wall. If he comes out, I’ll be stopped.”
cheap nike shox
nike air max 360
The mouse father went to talk to the wall. “Hello! Mr. Wall. I know you are the greatest person in the world. Would you marry my daughter?” “What? I’m not the greatest person in the world. The greatest person is YOU, the mouse.” “The greatest person in the world is … mouse?” “Yes, the greatest person in the world is mouse. See? If mouse comes out, I’ll be bit!”
nike air max
pumas shoes
The mouse father was very happy. He finally knew mouse was the greatest person in the world. He would marry his daughter to the handsome mouse next door.
cheap jeans
cheap levis jeans
ed hardy jeans

Cheryl said...

The problem, for researchers, with these last three levels of explanations is that they would all interact, and it would be difficult, if not impossible to tease them apart in practice.
Learn how to speak French and learn speak Chinese

Anonymous said...

Anothre set of ralph lauren polo in three colors. Ralph

Lauren Polo Shirts
come with a graduation of colors on the chest. The new shiki Cheap polo

shirts logo is on the chest. Comes in all layres and can be worned tucked in or out Wholesale Polo Shirts -50% OFF.
Also comes with sculpted collar and arm cuffs.Flat knit collar, Contrast placket and half

moon, Mothre-of-pearl buttons and tennis tail, Soft double knit piqué,100% cotton ralph lauren

polo shirts. If you lend your embroidrere a sample cheapralph lauren polos that will help you get

the closest match to the original embroidreed design. The artwork you provide will sreve as a

template for your embroidrey set-up but discount ralph lauren polos can't be used to identify some

stitch types, cheap polo shirts Cheap Polo Shirtsgive

precise sizing of embroidreed elements and show thread polo clothing colors.
The cold winter, does not seem too for wedding. Most recently, the cold one after another,

hangzhou air temperature pelter, let many wedding in late November bride is due a single wear

gauze or dress, will feel cold, wear too much and feel very bloated. For the bride, the winter is

the biggest test how wedding in temperature and balance between poise.

Don't be too upset, actually this season only fees cheap Wedding Dresses, marriage can create a different

character "winter wedding", also more memorable.

You can use the glittering and translucent white fairy tale, cheap cell phones
,the artistic conception to dress up oneself's wedding, choose blue, green, white ice cold tonal,

decorous atmosphere to create beautiful, Can borrow snow machine and bubble machine build indoor

romantic atmosphere, snowflake, feathers, Christmas tree,cheap cocktail

, even is the element such as silver crystal, can add to your winter wedding dreamy

colour, cheap

you can even in a pile of snowman YingBinChu lovely, guests, we must take it and will

soon be well.
Wholesale Polo Shirts
Ralph Lauren Polo Shirts
Discount Ralph Lauren Polos

Unknown said...

Thank you so much, I haven't ever read so wonderfull blog, your bolg is so good, I like it very much. I also want you to go to my web, and so that we can discuss something.
By the way, do you like polo shirts, which are very chic, especially the polo t shirts, I love them very much. I also like playing tennis rackets, it can keep healthy, what do you like to do?
cheap tennis racket
discount tennis racket
prince tennis racquet
head tennis rackets
wilson tennis racket
babolat tennis racquet
polo t shirts women
polo t shirts on sale
polo t shirts for women
polo shirts on sale
polo shirts men
men's polo shirt
men polo shirt
mens polo shirts
mens polo shirt
cheap polo shirts
discount polo shirts
men's polo shirts
women's polo shirts

Unknown said...

Dofus Kamas|Prix Moins Cher Dofus Kamas|Kamas par allopass|Dofus kamas audiotel|Dofus kamas par telephone sur

Meilleur prix dofus kamas stock de dofus kamas

Prix moins cher dofus kamas vente dofus kamas sur dofus kamas vente

Anonymous said...

I had never see a blog batter than this blog, I like this blog very very much.By the way, do you like my products: solar street lights, street lights, street lighting, street lamps, ball valves, butterfly valves, butterfly valve handles, check valves, sanitary fittings, butterfly valve handles, butterfly valve handles, street light, valve manufacturer, butterfly valve handles, valve manufacturers, butterfly valve handles, street lamp, solar street light, ball valve, butterfly valve handles, butterfly valve, check valve,valves manufacturers, butterfly valve handles

Anonymous said...

I had never see a blog batter than this blog, I like this blog very very much.By the way, do you like my products: solar street lights, street lights, street lighting, street lamps, ball valves, butterfly valves, butterfly valve handles, check valves, sanitary fittings, butterfly valve handles, butterfly valve handles, street light, valve manufacturer, butterfly valve handles, valve manufacturers, butterfly valve handles, street lamp, solar street light, ball valve, butterfly valve handles, butterfly valve, check valve,valves manufacturers, butterfly valve handles

Unknown said...

Successful Internet Marketing
Targeted Internet Marketing
Online Forex Trading
Automated Forex Trading

janewangleilei said...

wholesale nike shoes
wholesale adidas shoes
wholesale air jordan shoes
wholesale fashion sunglass
wholesale converse shoes
wholesale puma shoes
nike ajf shoes
nike ajf1 shoes
nike ajf4 shoes
nike ajf5 shoes
nike ajf6 shoes
nike ajf9 shoes
nike ajf12 shoes
nike ajf13 shoes
nike ajf23 shoes
nike ajf25 shoes

Anonymous said...

jordan 1
jordan 2
jordan 3
jordan 4
jordan 5

Unknown said...

jordan 8
There are cheap shoes to choose
jordan 9
You can have a look at it.
jordan 10
Funny things like this.
jordan 11
jordan 12
jordan 13

Unknown said...

There are cheap shoes to choose
jordan 6
jordan 7
Good quality with low price.
air jordan 2010
Air Jordan 2009
You can have a look at it.
jordan shoes
jordan ajf shoes
We offer different styles.
jordan 1
jordan 2
If you like,you can contact us.
jordan 3
jordan 4
jordan 5